A phaneritic, Refers to igneous rocks that crystallized underground. Click on Term to Read More One of the three basic types of rock that also include sedimentary and metamorphic. Igneous rocks are formed by the solidification of magma and comprised predominately of silicate minerals. Based on bulk chemical analysis, igneous rocks can be grouped into four major groups based on their SiO2 content: 1. Felsic: Click on Term to Read More made with a modal composition (i.e. volume%) > 90% Also referred to as the plagioclase feldspar series. Plagioclase is a common rock-forming series of feldspar minerals containing a continuous solid solution of calcium and sodium: (Na1-x,Cax)(Alx+1,Si1-x)Si2O8 where x = 0 to 1. The Ca-rich end-member is called anorthite (pure anorthite has formula: CaAl2Si2O8) and the Na-rich end-member is albite Click on Term to Read More An alumino-silicate mineral containing a solid solution of calcium, sodium and potassium. Over half the Earth’s crust is composed of feldspars and due to their abundance, feldspars are used in the classification of igneous rocks. A more complete explanation can be found on the feldspar group page. Click on Term to Read More whose composition is not defined (anorthitic to albitic), and a small One of the two broad categories of silicate minerals, the other being felsic, based on its magnesium (Mg) and/or iron (Fe) content. Mafic indicates silicate minerals that are predominantly comprised of Mg and/or Fe.The term is derived from those major constituents: Magnesium + Ferrum (Latin for iron) + ic (having Click on Term to Read More component between 0 -10% such as A class of silicate (SiO3) minerals that form a solid solution between iron and magnesium and can contain up to 50% calcium. Pyroxenes are important rock forming minerals and critical to understanding igneous processes. For more detailed information, please read the Pyroxene Group article found in the Meteoritics & Classification Click on Term to Read More, Ti-Fe oxide, TiFeO3, found in achondrites, lunar mare basalts, and shergottites. Ilmenite forms as a primary mineral in mafic igneous rocks. It crystallizes relatively early out of a magma before most of the other minerals, and as a result, the heavier crystals of ilmenite precipitate to the bottom of the magma Click on Term to Read More, Fe oxide, Fe2+Fe3+2O4, containing oxidized iron (Fe3+) found in the matrix of carbonaceous chondrites and as diagnostic component in CK chondrites. In CK chondrites, magnetite is typically chromian, containing several wt. % Cr2O3. Click on Term to Read More, and Group of silicate minerals, (Mg,Fe)2SiO4, with the compositional endpoints of forsterite (Mg2SiO4) and fayalite (Fe2SiO4). Olivine is commonly found in all chondrites within both the matrix and chondrules, achondrites including most primitive achondrites and some evolved achondrites, in pallasites as large yellow-green crystals (brown when terrestrialized), in the silicate portion Click on Term to Read More 1.
The name anorthosite is derived from the calcium-rich plagioclase feldspar end-member, Rare compositional variety of plagioclase and the calcium end-member of the plagioclase feldspar mineral series with the formula CaAl2Si2O8. Anorthite is found in mafic igneous rocks such as anorthosite. Anorthite is abundant on the Moon and in lunar meteorites. However, anorthite is very rare on Earth since it weathers rapidly Click on Term to Read More. As such, the plagioclase feldspar component is generally (but not necessarily) anorthitic (An90-100), with a small albitic component (Ab0-10) and an even smaller orthoclase content (Or0-5) in a Compositional variation resulting from the substitution of one ion or ionic compound for another ion or ionic compound in an isostructural material. This results in a mineral structure with specific atomic sites occupied by two or more ions or ionic groups in variable proportions. Solid solutions can be complete (with (see feldspar ternary diagram below). This general composition holds true for lunar anorthosite (a major component of the The highly cratered, topographically high, ancient crust of the Moon. This region is composed mostly of anorthosite, a plagioclase-rich rock. Click on Term to Read More). However, terrestrial Archean anorthosites contain more calcic plagioclase (An80-90), while Proterozoic anorthosites contain intermediate plagioclase (An40-60). Based on phase equilibria, anorthosites with albitic plagioclase (An<40) are unlikely.